Research indicates that massage therapy reduces stress and depression in the general population, and massage has also been studied in relation to its ability to alleviate pain, anxiety, depression and stress in cancer patients specifically. Massage therapy has also been found to improve mood in advanced cancer patients.
New research shows stress and depression are associated with shorter survival times in head-and-neck cancer patients.
"Studies have shown that stress can affect the immune system and weaken the body's defense against infection and disease," noted a press release from Fox Chase Cancer Center. "In cancer patients this stress can also affect a tumor's ability to grow and spread."
In the current study, Carolyn Fang, Ph.D., co-leader of the Cancer Prevention and Control Program at Fox Chase, and colleagues looked at 37 newly diagnosed, pre-surgical head-and-neck cancer patients to see if psychosocial functioning, such as perceived stress and depressive factors, was associated with VEGF, a biological pathway relating to patient outcomes.
The patients were predominantly male (70.3 percent), and approximately 57 years old, with primary tumor sites of the oral cavity (65.9 percent), larynx (19.9 percent), and oropharynx (13.5 percent). More than 40 percent of them were classified as having early-stage disease.
Each patient was given a psychosocial questionnaire to complete prior to treatment, which required them to answer questions about social support, depression and perceived stress. In addition, VEGF expression in tumor tissue obtained during surgery was evaluated using immunohistochemistry––a process that helps detect the presence of specific proteins in cells or tissues.
"Our analysis indicated that higher levels of perceived stress and depressive symptoms were associated with greater VEGF expression in the tumor tissue of these patients" said Fang. Greater VEGF expression was, in turn, associated with shorter disease-free survival among patients.
To be coping with cancer is to be poked by needles to draw blood for tests, prodded for tumors, treated with radiation, laser ablation and other techniques, dealt heavy doses of chemotherapy and other drugs. The patient sometimes finds him- or herself dissolving into a mere case, not a person with a heart and soul.
That is why a new generation of massage therapists working with cancer patients wants to help them reconnect with their body as a magnificent creation that deserves compassion and tenderness, not something that is diseased and sick. Practitioners specializing in oncology massage also want to lift the spirit of the individual, bring an element of pleasure and peace to a life that might be filled with pain and worry.
Lisa Caleca, CMT, owner of Serenity Therapeutic Massage, LLC, in Cranbury, feels it is a calling for her to help the cancer patient along his or her healing journey, to put as much positive energy into the body and soul of the individual.
“Love and service is my motto, compassion and encouragement without pity,” Ms. Caleca, a resident of Monroe Township, says “It’s a whole part of the healing process to help them stay as positive as possible through the experience. A lot of my patients are survivors, and they have the attitude, they don’t pity themselves. Still, they need to be lifted up.”
Not so long ago, doctors might not have suggested massage for their cancer patients. Full disclosure: My mother fought the disease from 1998-2003, and at one point, we were going to get her a gift certificate for massage but her oncologist said absolutely not. (And when I suggested energy work like Reiki, she made a face and said, “That sounds weird".
That thinking has evolved, however. When my father battled cancer in 2004-2005, his nearby chapter of Gilda’s House (the organization named for the late Gilda Radnor that provides support for cancer patients) offered free Reiki sessions, and my sister, aunt and myself gave him Reiki, as well.
Ms. Caleca reflects that there used to be a fear that massage would spread the cancer, push it through the body.
“What causes cancer to spread has nothing to do with touch, because if that was the case, breathing or walking would cause cancer to spread, anything that involves moving the muscles, moving the lymphatic system around,” she says.
That being said, oncology massage is quite different from regular therapeutic massage, and Ms. Caleca went through special certification for her practice. In 1998, she was certified as a massage therapist at Health Choices Center for the Healing Arts in Belle Mead. Then, last summer, she began to pursue certification in oncology massage at North Jersey Massage Training Center in Parsippany.
Studying with Cheryl Chapman (“a big guru of oncology massage,” Ms. Caleca says), last year she became certified in oncology/ hospice/AIDS massage, and went on to get certification for mastectomy massage, as of Dec. 2010.
The biggest difference between oncology massage and regular therapeutic massage is in the level of touch, Ms. Caleca says. She adds, however, that every oncology massage is different.
“For people who are dealing with cancer, they are often in so much pain, all they can handle is the lightest human touch,” she says. “We honor the consequences of the chemotherapy and radiation and we work within the stages of cancer to increase the levels of dopamine and endorphins, which help fight pain and nausea.”
The healing modality of Reiki is especially positive for the cancer patient, proponents assert. Ms. Caleca is a Reiki master and incorporates the practice, as well as foot reflexology and aromatherapy, into her massage.
“I like to stimulate the olfactory nerves, since it’s the oldest sense in the human body,” she says. “It’s the first to develop in the fetus, so memory recall is very much related to the sense of smell. I like to establish a spiritual aspect with my clients, and frequently use frankincense for the spiritual and grounding aspect of massage.”
Princeton Radiology is among the facilities and organizations Ms. Caleca has worked with. In the winter of 2011, during their Breast Cancer Awareness Week, she volunteered to do massage as part of their Wellness Day. Ms. Caleca also volunteers at Mary’s Place by the Sea in Ocean Grove, a retreat for women with breast cancer. She has also offered her services at the YWCA in Princeton, and through them got connected with The Elixir Fund, a 501(c)(3) charity organization based in Princeton Junction, raising awareness of cancer and giving support to cancer patients and their caregivers.
“The Elixir Fund was founded based on my brother Kevin’s experience with cancer treatment,” says founder and CEO Meg McQuarrie. “He went through multiple rounds of chemo, radiation on his brain and spine, and stem cell treatment. He was rarely if ever sick and he attributed that to maintaining his comfort during treatment. A primary aspect of that was massage and gentle touch.”
“Kevin was a massage therapist, with experience in reflexology,” she continues. “We found that massage, particularly foot massage, provided him great comfort and helped alleviate nausea. Later, as his diseased progressed, we as his caregivers were more hesitant to touch him because we didn’t want to hurt him, but that was exactly what he needed. Gentle head massage and light touch on his shoulders were so important to him in terms of maintaining some normalcy. Avoiding touch made him much more aware that he was sick.”
Ms. McQuarrie reflects that a diagnosis of cancer can take over the lives of not only the patients, but those who support them in their journey. The Elixir Fund works to find ways to help people take a break from cancer, perhaps by watching a funny movie while undergoing treatment, or receiving a massage or manicure. The group also helps to ease a person’s journey with cancer by helping them to access support services such as meals, transportation or complementary services such as yoga, massage, or meditation.
“Massage has always been a cornerstone of the Elixir programs because we’ve seen firsthand just how effective it can be for both patients and caregivers,” Ms. McQuarrie says. “Cancer can be an out-of-body experience. Massage and gentle touch help to reconnect patients to the world around them. It is also a relaxing experience and a time to sit quietly and to take a break.”
A series of four massages, provided weekly to children with cancer, as well as their parents, successfully reduced anxiety in both groups, according to recent research.
“Massage Therapy for Children with Cancer” involved 17 child-parent pairs who were selected from two in-patient oncology units at a children’s hospital in Minnesota. The children ranged in age from 1 to 18, with varying types of cancer, and only one parent per child participated in the study. Of the parents who participated, 96 percent were mothers.
The children and their parents were randomly assigned to either the massage-therapy or quiet-time group. Following four weekly sessions of either massage or quiet time, the pairs then switched groups at the same point in their next chemotherapy cycle, so that all child-parent pairs received both massage and quiet time.
During the massage intervention, parents received massage first, in the same room as the child, and remained in the room during their child’s massage as well. Parent massage lasted an average of 17 minutes. The massage therapist started with the shoulders, worked down the back, massaged the arms and hands, and finished with the neck and head.
Each child’s massage session lasted roughly 30 minutes and included the back, legs, arms, stomach, chest and face. The massage therapist gave each child the choice of where to start on the body and whether to keep clothes on or take them off.
During quiet time, which usually lasted about a half-hour, parent-child pairs would be together in a private room, where age-appropriate toys were provided and children and parents could read, rest, talk quietly or watch a video.
Outcome measures among the children included changes in relaxation, as measured by heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure and salivary cortisol level. Changes in symptoms, including pain, nausea, anxiety and fatigue, also served as outcome measures.
Among parents, anxiety and fatigue were evaluated. These measures were assessed just before and 15 to 20 minutes after each session of massage or quiet time.
Results of the research revealed that massage was more effective than quiet time at reducing heart rate in children with cancer, and it also decreased anxiety in those children younger than 14. Massage significantly reduced parent anxiety as well.
“This study supported the feasibility and acceptability of therapist-provided massage in children with cancer and their parents and provided preliminary evidence for reduction of anxiety and increased relaxation,” said the study’s authors.
Authors: Janice Post-White, Maura Fitzgerald, Kay Savik, Mary C. Hooke, Anne B. Hannahan and Susan F. Sencer.
Sources: University of Minnesota, Children’s Hospital and Clinics of Minnesota. Originally published in Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing (2008) 26: 16-28.
Among patients with advanced cancer, 30 minutes of massage therapy resulted in immediate benefits to both pain and mood, according to recent research.
"Massage Therapy versus Simple Touch to Improve Pain and Mood in Patients with Advanced Cancer" involved 348 people suffering from stage III or IV cancer and moderate to severe pain. Ninety percent of the participants were enrolled in hospice.
Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 30 minutes of massage therapy or 30 minutes of simple touch. Each cancer patient received six sessions of his or her assigned intervention throughout a two-week period, with at least 24 hours between sessions.
The massage therapy involved 30 minutes of gentle, smooth and gliding strokes (effleurage); squeezing, rolling and kneading of the muscles (petrissage); and trigger-point release, using finger pressure at tender areas to soothe recurring spasms and pain. The simple touch consisted of placing both hands on various parts of the subject’s body for three minutes at a time over a total of 30 minutes. Those who provided the simple touch were not trained in energy work or massage therapy; rather, they were instructed to use light and consistent pressure with no side-to-side hand movement.
Researchers evaluated both the immediate and the long-term effects of both types of touch. Immediate effects were measured just before and after each intervention. Sustained effects were measured at the start of the study and every week for three weeks.
The primary measures were immediate and sustained changes in pain, which were measured by the Memorial Pain Assessment Card.
Secondary evaluations included immediate changes in mood, also measured by the Memorial Pain Assessment Card; 60-second heart and respiratory rates; sustained change in quality of life, which was measured by the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire; symptom distress, which was measured by the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale; and use of analgesic medication, which was measured in parenteral morphine equivalents.
Results of the research revealed an immediate improvement in pain and mood for both the massage therapy and simple touch groups. However, massage proved to be clinically superior for both immediate pain and mood improvement.
At three weeks, there were no significant differences between the effects of massage therapy and simple touch on the subjects. Both interventions seemed to benefit the participants equally over time, as cancer patients in both groups showed significant improvements in pain.
"Massage may have immediately beneficial effects on pain and mood among patients with advanced cancer," said the study’s authors. "Given the lack of sustained effects and the observed improvements in both study groups, the potential benefits of attention and simple touch should also be considered in this patient population."
Authors: Jean S. Kutner, Marlaine C. Smith, Lisa Corbin, Linnea Hemphill, Kathryn Benton, B. Karen Mellis, Brenda Beaty, Sue Felton, Traci E. Yamashita, Lucinda L. Bryant and Diane L. Fairclough.
Source: University of Colorado, National Institutes of Health and National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Originally published in the Annals of Internal Medicine (2008) 149: 369-379.
Massage therapy decreased pain, symptom distress and anxiety in hospitalized cancer patients, according to a recent study.
Forty-one patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer participated in the study, "Outcomes of Therapeutic Massage for Hospitalized Cancer Patients," during a 16-month period. Ninety-five percent of the participants were men. Subjects had the following cancer diagnoses: lymph, lung, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, head and neck, leukemia, breast and skin.
Throughout the first eight months of the study, 20 patients on the oncology unit received massage therapy. One nurse provided the massage, which consisted of 15-30 minutes of light Swedish techniques, varying slightly according to each patient’s medical needs. Subjects received the massage, in their hospital bed, three times during a one-week hospital stay.
Throughout the last eight months of the study, 21 patients received 20 minutes of nurse interaction, a control condition to account for personal attention received by subjects in the massage group.
Four outcome variables were measured: pain (intensity and distress), subjective sleep quality, symptom distress and anxiety. Pain was measured with a numerical rating scale; subjective sleep quality was measured with the Verran and Snyder-Halpern Sleep Scale; symptom distress, such as nausea, mood and appetite, was measured with the Symptom Distress Scale; and anxiety was evaluated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
Subjects completed demographic questionnaires and the four outcome questionnaires after their first night in the hospital and on the seventh day of their stay.
The mean scores for pain and symptom distress decreased significantly for participants in the massage-therapy group. Their anxiety decreased, as well, although not significantly, and their subjective sleep quality remained the same.
For subjects in the nurse-interaction group, pain, symptom distress and subjective sleep quality all worsened, although their anxiety was slightly decreased.
"The consistent findings from this study and other published reports indicate that therapeutic massage may be an integral and important part of nursing care in hospital and hospice settings for cancer patients," state the study’s authors. "Content and practice of therapeutic massage should be strengthened in the nursing curricula and integrated throughout clinical practice."
Source: University of Colorado Health Sciences Center School of Nursing and Denver Veterans Administration Medical Center. Authors: Marlaine C. Smith, R.N., Ph.D.; Janet Kemp, R.N., Ph.D.; Linnea Hemphill, R.N., L.M.T.; and Carol P. Vojir, Ph.D. Originally published in the Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2002, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 257-262.
A seminal study of massage on cancer patients has shown that the intervention reduces the level of pain and anxiety these patients experience during treatment for the disease.
The study, conducted over four years at the James Cancer Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, sought empirical evidence for the efficacy of massage on cancer patients experiencing pain in the course of treatment.
"The research on the use of massage with cancer patients has been minim[al] because massage therapy schools teach their students that massage is contraindicated with cancer patients," reported Pauline King, a mental health clinical nurse at the hospital, who led the study.
"We are always probing, sticking and doing other invasive treatments with cancer patients who are often touch deprived," King continued. "It was felt strongly that the patient needed caring touch as an antidote to the invasive procedures."
The study, which concluded in late 1999, was funded by a $10,000 grant from the AMTA Foundation. Its results have been widely reported by national media.
For the study, 52 cancer patients receiving treatment at the hospital, which is affiliated with Ohio State University, were randomly placed into either an experimental group or a control group.
On the first day of the two-day study patients in both groups had a volunteer simply sit with them for 15 minutes, but had no physical contact. On the second day patients in the experimental group received petrissage on the hands, feet, shoulders and back of the neck for 15 minutes. Patients in the control group again sat with a volunteer for 15 minutes, but had no physical contact.
Pain and anxiety levels were measured on both days before the intervention, directly following, and again 30 minutes later. Pain levels were measured by a Visual Analogue Scale in which patients rated the severity of their pain on a scale from 0-10, with 0 equaling no pain and 10 equaling the worst pain possible. Anxiety, which was defined as "tension, apprehension, nervousness and worry," was measured using the Spilberger STAIT-TRAIT Anxiety Inventory, by which patients rated their own anxiety levels.
Data analysis showed the massage had a statistically relevant impact on pain and anxiety levels of patients in the experimental group compared to those in the control group. Overall, patients who received massage showed a .9 difference (drop) in pain level, versus no change in pain level for those in the control group.
"This study is a seminal study that produced empirical evidence on the efficacy of massage on cancer pain and anxiety," the report concluded. "More hard data studies are needed in order to bring massage in the medical systems where it is most needed."
An addendum to the study findings was the positive feedback the researchers received from the hospital's medical staff, in regard to the massage protocol. "Even before the study was completed, doctors and nurses were consulting the primary investigator to give their patients a massage," King reported. "The study raised the consciousness of the medical practitioners, which was another very positive outcome of this study."
Aromatherapy massage reduced anxiety among women with breast cancer and increased type 1 and type 2 helper T cells in the blood, according to recent research.
The study, "Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy Massage in Patients with Breast Cancer," involved 12 breast-cancer patients and took place throughout a period of about three months. The first month, prior to any massage sessions, served as the control period, followed by four weeks of massage and a one-month follow-up period.
Subjects in the study ranged in age from 45 to 58 years old, and each was six months to three years post-surgery for breast cancer. Participants all had received chemotherapy and/or hormonal treatment, but at least one month had passed since the completion of these treatments. Women with recurrence of cancer or marked edema were excluded from the study.
One month before receiving the first aromatherapy massage, the psychological state of the subjects was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). These tests were repeated immediately before and after the first, fifth and eighth massage session, as well as one month after the last massage.
In addition, blood samples were taken for each participant, in order to measure any immune-system response to the massage. This was done one month before the massage sessions began; immediately before the first, fifth and eighth massage; and one month after the sessions ended.
The aromatherapy massage used jojoba, sweet orange, lavender and sandalwood oils. The bodywork took place twice a week for four weeks, for a total of eight half-hour sessions.
Massage therapists performed the same standardized massage on each subject, focusing on the anterior area of the neck and thorax, back, shoulders, arms, hands and upper legs.
Results of the research revealed a gradual, significant decrease in anxiety among participants both short- and long-term—immediately before the last massage and also one month after the bodywork ended. The study showed a significant, lasting reduction in aggression and hostility as well.
In terms of immune-system response, the blood samples showed a significant increase in type 1 and type 2 helper T cells after the eighth aromatherapy massage.
"Although it is hard to interpret these results theoretically, it is possible that aromatherapy massage affects the immune system," state the study's authors. "Our results suggest that aromatherapy massage is a viable complementary therapy that significantly reduces anxiety in breast-cancer patients."
Source: Department of Microbiology, Department of Endocrine and Breast Surgery, Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan; and Department of Psychology, Kyoto Notre Dame University, Kyoto, Japan.
Authors: Jiro Imanishi, Hiroko Kuriyama, Ichiro Shigemori, Satoko Watanabe, Yuka Aihara, Masakazu Kita, Kiyoshi Sawai, Hiroo Nakajima, Noriko Yoshida, Mashiro Kunisawa, Masanori Kawase and Kenji Fukui. Originally published in Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, April 2008.
Pomógł: 14 razy Dołączył: 05 Lut 2008 Posty: 7161 Skąd: bangkok warszawa
Wysłany: 2014-05-12, 08:01
ponizej skrot tej 10 stronicowej pracy, niestety, calosc jest w formacie pdf i nie da sie skopiowac:
W ostatnich latach zauważalny jest wzrost zachorowalności na nowotwory. Wzrost ten chorych wymaga wczesnej i ciągłej rehabilitacji.
Rehabilitacja jest szczególnie ważna w przypadku nowotworów kości i przerzutów nowotworowych do kości.
Rehabilitacja chorych onkologicznie, z powodu różnorodności problemów w ciągu trwania choroby, powinna się opierać na podejściu zespołowym lekarzy i terapeutów. Rehabilitacja powinna zachęcić chorego, zmotywować do leczenia oraz pokazać zalety płynące z terapii.
W skład zespołu rehabilitacji wchodzą:
lekarze rehabilitacji medycznej,
pielęgniarka onkologiczna lub rehabilitacyjna
inni, np. logopedzi, osoby duchowne.
Wyróżnia się cztery podstawowe rodzaje interwencji rehabilitacji onkologicznych:
interwencje zapobiegawcze, które minimalizują następstwa leczenia,
interwencja przywracająca, która pomaga chorym powrót do zajęć poprzedzających chorobę,
interwencja podtrzymująca, która ma na celu przystosowanie pacjenta do choroby oraz jej następstw, np. nauka korzystania z protez, przedmiotów codziennego użytku, w celu polepszenia komfortu życia,
interwencja paliatywna - stosowana jest podczas terminalnej fazy choroby. Zmniejsza ona odczuwanie komplikacji i poprawia jakość życia chorych, np. kontrola bólu, zapobieganie przykurczom czy odleżynom.
Coraz więcej badań potwierdza pozytywne następstwa rehabilitacji chorób onkologicznych.
Rehabilitacje różnią się u poszczególnych pacjentów:
terminem rozpoczęcia rehabilitacji i intensywności ćwiczeń,
sposobem ich wykonywania dla osiągnięcia najkorzystniejszych efektów.
Autor opracowania:Patrycja Piechaczek
Źródło: Kwolek Andrzej i inni,,,Nowoczesna rehabilitacja w chorobach onkologicznych narządu ruchu”, Wydawnictwo UR, Rzeszów 2007, 1, 14-23
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